English translations of French occupations

During the French occupation in the Netherlands (1795-1813), many of the official records were written in French. Here are some of the occupations you can find in the records, with their English translations.

Farmer

The farmer. Print by Jan and Casper Luyken, circa 1690. Credits: Picturing the past

Accoucheur > Obstetrician

Adjoint > Aldermen

Adjoint-Maire > Interim mayor

Advocat > Lawyer

Agriculteur > Farmer

Aide > Aide

Amurier > Weapon smith

Apoticaire > Apothecary

Apprentif > Apprentice

Armurier > Weapon smith

Arpenteur > Surveyor

Aubergist > Innkeeper

Avocatte > Lawyer

Avoué > Procurator

Avouré > Procurator

Bancher > Coach driver

Banchisser > Bleacher

Batelier > Skipper

Berger > Shepherd

Bijoutier > Jeweller

Blanchisseur > Bleacher

Blatier > Corn trader

Boorrelier > Harness maker

Bottier > Boot maker

Boucher > Butcher

Boulanger > Baker

Bourrelier > Saddle maker

Boutiquier > Shopkeeper

Boutonier > Button maker

Bradder > Beer brewer

Brasseur > Brewer

Brossier > Brush maker

Buralist > Civil servant, clerk

Cabaretier > Innkeeper

Cafetier > Barkeeper

Cardeur de laine > Wool shearer

Chandelier > Candlemaker

Chapelier > Hat maker

Charbonnier > Fuel trader

Charbonnier > Coal burner

Charpentier > Carpenter

Charretier > Cart man

Charretier > Driver

Charron > Waggon maker

Chaudronnier > Copper smith

Cocher > Driver, coach man

Cochond > Pig trader

Colporteur > Peddler

Commis > Office worker

Commis > Clerk

Commisionaire > Representative

Rope maker

Rope maker, about 1694. Credits: Jan and Casper Luyken, Picturing the Past

Conducteur d’Etalon > Horse driver

Conducteur de postes > Post man

Confiturier > Shopkeeper dealing in sugared fruits

Conseilleur > Councilor

Consieller > Procurator

Constructeur de Vosseaud > Ship maker

Constructeur maritime > Ship builder

Cordier > Rope maker

Cordonnier > Shoemaker

Coutier > Weaver

Couturière > Seamstress

Couvreur > Roofer

Crieur public > Town crier

Crieur > Crier

Croheteur > Carrier

Cultivateur > Farmer

Curé > Curate

Domestique > Domestic servant

Doreur > Gold plater

Ebéniste > Shriner

Ecipier > Grocer

Ecrivain > Writer, scribe

Employe à Tribunal > Employee of the court

Employe aux Digues > Employee of the dikeworks

Employe des Droits Reunis > Employee of the tax service

Employé > Civil servant

Entreprenneur > Contractor

Epicier > Grocer

Escouade > Corporal

Etudiant > Student

Fabrikant d’instruments > Instrument maker

Fabriquer > Manufacturer

Facteur des Instruments > Instrument maker

Facteur > Post man

Faisseur d’Orgries > Organ builder

Farinier > Flour seller

Ferblantier > Tin smith

Fermier > Tenant farmer

Ferrand > Farrier

Forgeron > Smith

Fossoyer > Ditch digger

Fossoyeur > Grave digger

Fourbisseur > Arms dealer

Fourneur en Bois > Wood trader

Fripier > Second-hand dealer

Garçon > Boy

Garde de Champêtre > Constable

Garde de Côte > Coast watch

Garde Digue > Dike watchman

Garde Gardien > Guard

Gardien > Guard

Gendarme > Constable

Geôlier > Jailor

Geometre > Surveyor

Geuteur > Stocking maker

Grabuleur > Freighter

Greffier > Court clerk

Horloger > Watch maker or clock maker

Hôte > Innkeeper

Huilier > Oil trader

Huissier > Messenger, custodian

Imprimeur > Printer

Instituteur > Teacher

Intermédiaire > Intermediary

Jardinier > Gardener

Journalier > Day laborer

Juge de Paix > Justice of the Peace

Etching of a school teacher

School teacher; etching by Jan and Casper Luyken, about 1694. Credits: Picturing the Past

Laboureur > Laborer

Laitier > Milk trader

Lamaneur > Pilot (of ships)

Libraire > Book trader

Limonadier > Lemonade manufacturer

Macon > Mason

Maitre d’école > School teacher

Maitre du Chantier > Ship builder

Maljenier > Iron trader

Manouvrier > Day laborer, craftsman

Marchand de Boisson > Liquor trader

Marchand de Drap > Cloth trader

Marchand des Grains > Grain trader

Marchand > Trader, merchant

Maréchal ferrand > Farrier

Maréchal > Farrir

Marin > Sailor

Marquillier > Custodian

Marronnier > Trader

Massager > Freighter

Masson > Mason

Matelot > Sailor

Médecin > Doctor

Medium > Intermediary

Membre du Conseil Municipal > Member of the municipal council

Mendiant > Beggar

Menusier > Shriner

Menusier de Vin > Vintner, wine trader

Menusier > Miller

Messager > Messenger

Mesureur > Surveyor

Metron > Calibrator

Meunier > Miller

Mineur > Miner

Ministre de Culte > Minister

Ministre > Minister

Mitron > Pastry baker’s hand

Moitre des Digues > Dike master

Moulenier > Miller

Municipal > Municipal civil servant

Musicien > Musicien

Musiquillier > Musicien

Natteur > Mat maker

Nattier > Mat braider

Négociant > Banker, wholesaler

Negotiant > Trader

Officier de Santé > Doctor in the countryside

Orfèvre > Gold or silver smith

Orphelin > Orphan boy

Orpheline > Orphan girl

Ouvrier > Worker, laborer

Paison > Farm hand

Parfumeur > Perfume maker

Passager > Traveler, traveling salesman

Passement > Salesman

Pasteur > Pastor or minister

Patron > Patron, employer

Pattissier > Pastry baker

Paveur > Paver, street maker

Pécheur > Fisherman

Peigneur de Laine > Wool comber

Peintre > Painter

Pelletier > Furrier

Percepteur > Driver

Percepteur > Tax collector

Percepteur > Collector

Perrequier > Wig maker

Pharmaceur > Apothecary

Pharmacien > Apothecary

Pharmacin > Druggist

Pilote > Pilot (ships)

Plombier > Plumber

Poellenier > Hearth smith

Poissonier > Fishmonger

Portefaix > Carter

Postillon > Post man

Potier d’étain > Tin smith

Potier > Potter

Preposé de l ‘Octroi > Supervising civil servant

Preposéau Sas > Water board civil servant

Prier d’enterrement > Undertaker

Prieur > Prior

Propriétaire de navire > Owner of ships

Propriétaire terrien > Land owner

Propriétaire > Home owner

Provot > Provost

Quincaillier > Iron trader

Raffineur en socre > Sugar refiner

Ramoneur > Chimney sweep

Recerveur > Tax collector

Recteur > Collector

Relieur > Book binder

Rémouleur > Scissor grinder

Remoulier > Scissor grinder

Reparateur > Repairman

Repartier > Repairman

Revendeur > Buyer

Sabotier > Wooden shoe maker

Sacristain > Sacrist

Sagefemme > Midwife

Sautier > Bailiff

Savetter > Cobbler

Savonnier > Soap maker

Sculpteur > Sculptor

Sellier > Saddle maker

Serrurier > Lock maker

Serurier > Lock maker

Servante > Servant

Serviteur > Servant

Stucateur > Plasterer

Weaver. Print by Jan and Casper Luyken, circa 1690 (public domain)

Tailleur de pierres > Stone carver

Tailleur > Tailor

Tambour de ville > Crier

Tamisier > Sift maker

Tanneur > Tanner

Tapisier > Trader in wall paper and rugs

Tapissier > Wallpaperer

Tappisseur > Rug maker

Tavernier > Innkeeper

Teinturier > Fabric painter

Teinturier > Wool painter

Teneur de livres > Bookkeeper

Terrassier > Subcontractor, dike worker

Tisserand > Weaver

Tonnelier > Cooper

Tourneur > Turner

Tradecteur > Translator

Traîneur > Person who dragged a ship using a horse

Traiteur > Cook

Tripier > Seller of tripe and offal

Valet de Labour > Farm hand

Valet > Hand, servant

Vanier > Basket maker

Vannier > Basket maker

Vendeur > Seller

Verrier > Glass maker

Vétérinaire > Veterinarian

Vidangeur > Night worker

Vitrier > Glass maker

Vitries > Glass maker

Vivandier > Peddler

Voiturier > Freighter

Volier > Freighter


This list is based on a list of French occupations and their Dutch translations provided by the Zeeuws Archief, used with permission.
About Yvette Hoitink

Yvette Hoitink is a professional genealogist in the Netherlands. She has been doing genealogy for almost 25 years. Her expertise is helping people from across the world find their ancestors in the Netherlands. Read about Yvette's professional genealogy services.

Comments

  1. Joel Lefever says

    Good to see “colporteur” which was the occupation of one of my paternal ancestors who appears to have been a “teuten” from Luyksgestel, Noord-Brabant, but moved to Kortrijk, West-Vlaanderen in the 1810s. In Dutch-language records he was called a “vraegenden koopman” or “omzwervenden koopman.”

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